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Tuesday, January 13, 2009

In the World of Philosophy

Idealism (Plato)
-Nothing can be directly known outside of the mind of thinking being.
-ideas are the only true reality, the only worth knowing
*the spiritual or mental world: which is eternal, permanent, orderly, regular and universal.
*the world of appearance, experienced through sight, touch, smell, taste, and sound that is changing, imperfect and disorderly.
Aim of education
-to discover & and develop each individual’s abilities & full moral excellence in order to better serve society
-develop the mind
-search for true ideas
-character development
-self realization
*the curricular emphasis is subject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, and religion.
*teaching methods: lecture, discussion & Socratic (Socratic dialogue)
*idealism has exerted a great amount of influence on Christianity.

Realism (don’t need to observe)
-reality knowledge and value exist independent of human mind.
* Truth is objective: what can be observed
* emphasizes the existence of some kind of things or objects
*realism is opposed to idealism
*if something exists, it can be measured
*ideas must be subject to public verification
- must be proven through scientific experimentation
*universal properties of objects remain constant and never change, whereas particular components do change
*the realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics
*teaching method focus on mastery on facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. (Can demonstrate)
*students must demonstrate the ability to think critically & scientifically, using observation& experimented

Pragmatism
-only those things that are experienced or observed are real
- Proposition is true. If it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in the practical consequences of accepting it, and unpractical ideas are to be rejected.
-“whatever works is likely true”
- Because reality changes “whatever works” will also change- thus, truth must also be changeable and no one can claim to posses any final or ultimate truth
-ideas should be applied to calving problems including social problems.
-reality is constantly changing
-teaching methods: hands-on problem solving, experimenting & projects
-need and interests of students should be considerable
-students work in groups
-education should be preparation for life

Typed by : Abu Manap..buckets of thanks to him...

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